Advertisements

Relay module DIY Reverse Engineering

All posts by Habib

Relay module DIY Reverse Engineering

A relay module is a set of components that is electrically operated and works based on a signal. That can be connected to an Arduino or a transistor and or any other application that the output is a signal or a voltage. Same as relay the relay module is used to control high voltage electronic devices. A Relay module is a mechanical switch which is electrically operated by an electromagnet. When the electromagnet is activated with a low voltage, that can be 5 v, 12 v, 32 v, … it will triggers a mechanical arm that pulls a contact to make a connection between two contacts. Relay modules are used for high voltage controls, and big loads. Relay modules has low power lose in a circuit. In other hands they are slow and they are not quick as transistors.
MILLIMETRE TO CENTIMETRE CALCULATOR

Millimetre online conversion form

The millimetre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI unit symbol mm) or millimeter (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousandth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length. Therefore, there are one thousand millimetres in a metre. There are ten millimetres in a centimetre.
MILLIMETRE TO CENTIMETRE CALCULATOR

Millimetre to Centimetre Conversion

The millimetre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI unit symbol mm) or millimeter (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousandth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length. Therefore, there are one thousand millimetres in a metre. There are ten millimetres in a centimetre. One millimetre is equal to 1000 micrometres or 1000000 nanometres. Since an inch is officially defined as exactly 25.4 millimetres, a millimetre is therfore equal to exactly ​5⁄127 (≈ 0.03937) of an inch.

CMOS, Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor

Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS), also known as complementary-symmetry metal–oxide–semiconductor (COS-MOS), is a type of MOSFET (metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor) fabrication process that uses complementary and symmetrical pairs of p-type and n-type MOSFETs for logic functions.[1] CMOS technology is used for constructing integrated circuits (ICs), including microprocessors, microcontrollers, memory chips (including CMOS BIOS), and other digital logic circuits.

NMOS logic, N-type metal-oxide-semiconductor logic

N-type metal-oxide-semiconductor logic uses n-type MOSFETs (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors) to implement logic gates and other digital circuits. These nMOS transistors operate by creating an inversion layer in a p-type transistor body. This inversion layer, called the n-channel, can conduct electrons between n-type "source" and "drain" terminals. The n-channel is created by applying voltage to the third terminal, called the gate. Like other MOSFETs, nMOS transistors have four modes of operation: cut-off (or subthreshold), triode, saturation (sometimes called active), and velocity saturation.
Centimetre to Metre Calculator

Centimetre to Metre Conversion

A centimetre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; symbol cm) or centimeter (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one hundredth of a metre, centi being the SI prefix for a factor of 1/100.[1] The centimetre was the base unit of length in the now deprecated centimetre–gram–second (CGS) system of units. Though for many physical quantities, SI prefixes for factors of 103—like milli- and kilo-—are often preferred by technicians, the centimetre remains a practical unit of length for many everyday measurements. A centimetre is approximately the width of the fingernail of an average adult person

PMOS logic, P-type metal-oxide-semiconductor logic

Here is the P-type metal-oxide-semiconductor logic uses p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) to implement logic gates and other digital circuits. PMOS transistors operate by creating an inversion layer in an n-type transistor body. This inversion layer, called the p-channel, can conduct holes between p-type "source" and "drain" terminals.

What is Arduino?

Arduino is an open-source hardware and software company, project and user community that designs and manufactures single-board microcontrollers and microcontroller kits for building digital devices.

Electric current

An electric current is the rate of flow of electric charge past a point[1]:2[2]:622 or region.[2]:614 An electric current is said to exist when there is a net flow of electric charge through a region.[3]:832 In electric circuits this charge is often carried by electrons moving through a wire. It can also be carried by ions in an electrolyte, or by both ions and electrons such as in an ionized gas (plasma).[4] The SI unit of electric current is the ampere , which is the flow of electric charge across a surface at the rate of one coulomb per second. The ampere (symbol: A) is an SI base unit[5]:15 Electric current is measured using a device called an ammeter.

Volts, Electric potential energy

When a bunch of electrons congregate in one place, their combined charges build up to a certain level of electric potential energy in that object. For example, when I rub this rubber balloon on my wool scarf, it causes a bunch of the electrons from the scarf to jump over on the balloon. Now the balloon is negatively charged, because it has a surplus of negatively charged electrons, and the scarf is positively charged, because it has a shortage of electrons.

Electrical Conductors and insulators

Electricity occurs when electrons accumulate in or flow through the atoms that make up an object. And different types of materials, which are composed of different combinations of atoms, may allow those little electrons to move about more or less freely from atom to atom.  Conductivity: The term conductivity describes how easily electrons are able to move around within certain materials, and it's determined by the structure of atoms in the material and how they're connected to each other. 

Electrical charge, electron, proton and neutron

All objects are made of tiny little building blocks called atoms which are way too small to see and each of those atoms consists of three types of even tinier little particles called protons, neutrons and electrons. Protons and electrons are particles which have equal and opposite electrical charges. We say that protons are positively charged and that electrons are negatively charged. The neutrons don't have any electrical charge so we call them neutral. The amount of charge in an object can be measured using a unit called coulombs which is abbreviated with a capital letter C.
SM-R800-Pintou-connection

Samsung Galaxy Watch LTE 46mm SM-R800 PINOUTS

Here is the pin-out diagram drawing of Samsung Galaxy Watch Model SM-R800. Although all Samsung Products are coming with a USB cable connectivity with computers, so you can flash your device with firmware and reset it to factory setting. But unfortunately Samsung Watches doesn't not come with such ability. In most of these watches user need to connect the watch by a wireless connection. And it does need a computer with wireless connectivity. Well sometimes your wireless connection might break or your watch get bricked and you will have no way to connect your watch by a wireless connection.

HEMT High-electron-mobility transistor

A High-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT), also known as heterostructure FET (HFET) or modulation-doped FET (MODFET), is a field-effect transistor incorporating a junction between two materials with different band gaps (i.e. a heterojunction) as the channel instead of a doped region (as is generally the case for MOSFET). A commonly used material combination is GaAs with AlGaAs, though there is wide variation, dependent on the application of the device. Devices incorporating more indium generally show better high-frequency performance, while in recent years, gallium nitride HEMTs have attracted attention due to their high-power performance. Like other FETs, HEMTs are used in integrated circuits as digital on-off switches. FETs can also be used as amplifiers for large amounts of current using a small voltage as a control signal. Both of these uses are made possible by the FET’s unique current-voltage characteristics. HEMT transistors are able to operate at higher frequencies than ordinary transistors, up to millimeter wave frequencies, and are used in high-frequency products such as cell phones, satellite television receivers, voltage converters, and radar equipment. They are widely used in satellite receivers, in low power amplifiers and in the defense industry.
mesfet structure

MESFET stands for metal–semiconductor field-effect transistor

MESFET stands for metal–semiconductor field-effect transistor. It is quite similar to a JFET in construction and terminology. The difference is that instead of using a p-n junction for a gate, a Schottky (metal-semiconductor) junction is used. MESFETs are usually constructed in compound semiconductor technologies lacking high quality surface passivation such as GaAs, InP, or SiC, and are faster but more expensive than silicon-based JFETs or MOSFETs. Production MESFETs are operated up to approximately 45 GHz,[1] and are commonly used for microwave frequency communications and radar. The first MESFETs were developed in 1966, and a year later their extremely high frequency RF microwave performance was demonstrated.[2]

MOSFET (Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET) – N-CHANNEL or P-CHANNEL

The metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is a type of field-effect transistor (FET), most commonly fabricated by the controlled oxidation of silicon. It has an insulated gate, whose voltage determines the conductivity of the device. This ability to change conductivity with the amount of applied voltage can be used for amplifying or switching electronic signals. A metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistor or MISFET is a term almost synonymous with MOSFET. Another synonym is IGFET for insulated-gate field-effect transistor.

JFET (Junction Field-Effect Transistor) – N-CHANNEL or P-CHANNEL

The junction gate field-effect transistor (JFET or JUGFET) is one of the simple type of field-effect transistor.[1] JFETs are three-terminal semiconductor devices that can be used as electronically-controlled switches, amplifiers, or voltage-controlled resistors. Unlike bipolar transistors, JFETs are exclusively voltage-controlled in that they do not need a biasing current. Electric charge flows through a semiconducting channel between source and drain terminals. By applying a reverse bias voltage to a gate terminal, the channel is "pinched", so that the electric current is impeded or switched off completely. A JFET is usually ON when there is no potential difference between its gate and source terminals. If a potential difference of the proper polarity is applied between its gate and source terminals, the JFET will be more resistive to current flow, which means less current would flow in the channel between the source and drain terminals. Thus, JFETs are sometimes referred to as depletion-mode devices.
field effect transistor

Field-effect transistor

The field-effect transistor (FET) is a transistor that uses an electric field to control the electrical behaviour of the device. FETs are also known as unipolar transistors since they involve single-carrier-type operation. Many different implementations of field effect transistors exist. Field effect transistors generally display very high input impedance at low frequencies. The conductivity between the drain and source terminals is controlled by an electric field in the device, which is generated by the voltage difference between the body and the gate of the device.

What is a Photo Darlington?

Photo Darlington is a phototransistor that is related to Darling transistor family  also called Darlington phototransistor or photodarlington.  The photodarlington transistor provides a much higher degree of sensitivity when compared to other phototransistors, but this is at the expense of response time and frequency response.

What is Sziklai pair?

In electronics, the Sziklai pair (also known as a complementary feedback pair (CFP) or "compound transistor", and as a "pseudo-Darlington") is a configuration of two bipolar transistors, similar to a Darlington pair.[1] In contrast to the Darlington arrangement, the Sziklai pair has one NPN and one PNP transistor, and so it is sometimes also called the "complementary Darlington". The configuration is named for its early popularizer, George C. Sziklai.

What is a Darlington transistor?

What is a Darlington transistor? In electronics, the Darlington transistor (commonly called a Darlington pair) is a compound structure of a particular design made by two bipolar transistors connected in such a way that the current amplified by the first transistor is amplified further by the second one.[1] This configuration gives a much higher current gain than each transistor taken separately.